Allegations of cheating – including wild speculation involving vibrating anal beads – have rocked chess to its core. A fortnight ago, the world champion, Magnus Carlsen, pulled out of a tournament for the first time in his career, and then, on Monday, he stunned the sport again by resigning a game after just one move. Both times Carlsen was faced with the same opponent, the 19-year-old American Hans Niemann.
When did the furor start?
Carlsen pulled out of the $500,000 (£433,000) Sinquefield Cup after a shock defeat against Niemann with white pieces. The day after the loss, he posted a cryptic tweet that included a video clip of José Mourinho saying: “If I speak, I am in big trouble.”
There was soon frenzied speculation over Carlsen’s motives, with the American grandmaster and popular streamer Hikaru Nakamura claiming Carlsen had withdrawn because he thought Niemann was “probably cheating.”
— Chess.com (@chesscom) September 8, 2022
What happened next?
Organizers of the Sinquefield Cup announced additional anti‑cheating precautions, including a 15-minute delay in the broadcast of the moves and increased radio-frequency identification checks. Niemann, who had won two of his first three games, proceeded to lose or draw his final six. No evidence of cheating was found.
What explanations have been advanced for Niemann’s victory?
One theory doing the rounds on the internet, popularised by Elon Musk, is that Niemann used vibrating anal beads to help him. Another suggestion was that he might have somehow leaked Carlsen’s opening preparation. Niemann denies both. But others have suggested that the American, who says he spends 10-12 hours a day on chess, may have been the better player.
How would those beads help a chess player win?
The Guardian spoke to two sources in the chess world, who both said if top players knew a move that gave them a significant advantage existed – perhaps with the use of some signal – it would help them to find it more often than not.
How has Niemann responded?
After his victory against Carlsen, Niemann claimed that “by some ridiculous miracle,” he had guessed his opponent’s unusual opening and prepared for it. “It must be embarrassing for the world champion to lose to me,” he said. “I feel bad for him.”
The next day, Niemann did admit he had cheated in the past in online events with the help of computer assistance when he was a 12- and 16-year-old – but insisted he was now “clean” and was even prepared to play naked to prove his innocence.
How do you cheat at chess?
It is far easier to do so over the internet, where some players have been caught using computer engines to help them to find good moves. It is trickier over the board, where players are often scanned beforehand for electric devices.
That doesn’t mean it is not possible, however. Perhaps the most high-profile case involved the French players Sébastien Feller, Arnaud Hauchard, and Cyril Marzolo, who was found guilty of cheating at the 2010 Chess Olympiad.
The elaborate scheme involved Marzolo analyzing Feller’s games on the internet before sending suggestions to Hauchard by SMS. He then relayed them to Feller by standing behind one of the other players’ tables in a predefined coded system, where each table represented a move to play.
In 2019, Feller was given a six-month suspended prison sentence for his behavior. More recently, the Latvian grandmaster Igors Rausis was banned for six years after being caught looking up moves on a phone he had hidden in a toilet.
Some players were surprised to have their heads scanned by electromagnetic wands at the recent Olympiad in India. One theory doing the rounds was that organizers looked for devices hidden in teeth.
Why did Carlsen and Niemann play again so soon, and what happened?
They were invited to participate in the Meltwater Champions Chess Tour’s Julius Baer Generation Cup and squared off again on Monday night, online rather than face to face. But Carlsen caused more controversy by resigning after playing just one move.
How have other players reacted?
The response has been mixed. The top grandmaster Anish Giri said it was “pretty clear” Carlsen did not have direct evidence Niemann had cheated against him. But he said: “It’s a big problem playing people who have admitted to cheating online because you lose trust in them.” Carlsen’s Norwegian teammate Jon Ludvig Hammer condemned the decision to resign after one move. “It is completely unacceptable behavior to lose on purpose; it is the most unsportsmanlike behavior in the world of sports,” he said before suggesting Carlsen could be sanctioned for his actions.
Where does this all leave us?
With a stalemate of epic proportions. The world’s leading expert on cheating in chess, Dr. Kenneth Regan, has analyzed all of Niemann’s games over the past two years, and his conclusion is there is no reason whatsoever to suspect him of cheating. However, Carlsen, the most potent player in chess, is unconvinced.